The ACLU is celebrating twenty years of making the internet better. On June 26th, 1997, the ACLU prevailed in Reno v. ACLU, with the Supreme Court striking down the anti-indecency portions of the 1996 Communications Decency Act (CDA).
As can be gathered by the law's name, it was written from a position of morality and panic -- the fear that the internet's connectivity would drown the nation's youth in easily-accessible porn. And yet, the law survives today as one of the most important factors in the internet's speedy growth, thanks to Section 230, which prevents service providers and social media platforms from being held civilly responsible for users' posts and actions.
But it might not have been that way. In 1996, the ACLU didn't even have a website of its own and most legislators had nothing more than bill sponsors' parades of horribles to go on. So, for the children, the CDA criminalized "obscene or indecent" material if it could be viewed by minors.
It was another case of legislators "knowing" what was indecent when they saw it. But even under that wholly subjective standard, the government spent most of its time shrugging.
During the various internet censorship cases the ACLU brought, we asked the government to identify speech in each category, and they were largely unable to do so. For example, they said that an online photo on Playboy’s website of a topless woman was not harmful to minors, but a virtually identical photo on Penthouse’s website was.
The ACLU's website was born from this legal battle. In order to show standing, the ACLU had to publish something the government might consider "indecent." It chose a Supreme Court decision declaring George Carlin's famous "Seven Words You Can't Say on TV" monologue "indecent." The entire monologue was included in the decision's appendix. The ACLU posted the decision and asked readers to guess which words the Supreme Court had found indecent. Obviously, it ended up with far more than seven words, which was enough to give it standing to challenge the CDA provision.
The plan worked. The ACLU took its challenge all the way to the Supreme Court and won. If it hadn't, the internet would be as boring and lifeless as the blandest of network TV offerings. That's the standard legislators were hoping to apply to the world's greatest communication platform: the same rules the FCC applies to broadcast TV. The Supreme Court struck down this damaging provision, recognizing the enormous potential of the web and the threat posed to it by "think of the children" legislation.
The record demonstrates that the growth of the Internet has been and continues to be phenomenal. As a matter of constitutional tradition, in the absence of evidence to the contrary, we presume that governmental regulation of the content of speech is more likely to interfere with the free exchange of ideas than to encourage it. The interest in encouraging freedom of expression in a democratic society outweighs any theoretical but unproven benefit of censorship.
The ACLU's site has a long interview with Chris Hansen, who led the ACLU's litigation. It's well worth reading, especially considering what the web might have become if no one had stepped up to defend "indecent" speech.